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Vegetation Phenology in Finland

Dataset Creator: Kristin Böttcher
Publication Year: 2020

Datasets present the yearly maps of the start of vegetation active period (VAP) in coniferous forests and deciduous vegetation during 2001-2019 in Finland. The start of the vegetation active period is defined as the day when coniferous trees start to photosynthesize and for deciduous vegetation as the day when trees unfold new leaves in spring. The datasets were derived from satellite observations of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiome ...

BorealGreen-upPhenologyVegetationStart of season

Title:

Vegetation Phenology in Finland

Publication Year:

2020

Description:
External links to the project: http://metatieto.ymparisto.fi:8080/geoportal/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B31F4499F-5F0F-4500-967B-6C275082A3AD%7D
http://metatieto.ymparisto.fi:8080/geoportal/catalog/search/resource/details.page?uuid=%7B45D3F820-DA63-47FE-8ABA-53047CDCEF37%7D
https://www.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=a446e987496b4d8794b307e882da718a
License:

CC BY 4.0

Additional Info:

The products were compared with ground observations. The start of the VAP in coniferous forest was well correlated with the day when the Gross Primary Production (GPP) exceeded 15% of its summer maximum at 3 eddy covariance measurement sites in Finland (R2=0.7). The accuracy was 9 days for the period 2001-2016. The satellite product was in average 3 days late compared to the ground observations. The accuracy was higher (6 days, R2=0.84) and no bias was observed in pine forest compared to spruce forest that showed larger deviations to ground observations. The start of the VAP in deciduous vegetation corresponded well with visual observations of the bud break of birch from the phenological network of the Natural Resource Institute of Finland (Luke). The accuracy was 7 days for the period 2001-2015 based on 84 site-years. The bias was negligible (0.4 days).

Creator

Name:

Kristin Böttcher

E-mail: Kristin.Bottcher@ymparisto.fi
Organisation:

Finnish Environment Institute

Contact

Name:

Kristin Böttcher

E-mail: Kristin.Bottcher@ymparisto.fi
Organisation:

Finnish Environment Institute

Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs)

EBV class

Ecosystem functioning

EBV name

Ecosystem phenology

Metric

Metric 1
Name:

Phenology Coniferous

Description:

The data set consists of yearly maps of the start of the vegetation active period (VAP) in coniferous forest (Day of Year), which is defined as the day when coniferous trees start to photosynthesize in spring. The data set was derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observation of Fractional Snow Cover. The day when snow cover decreases during spring melt was used as a proxy indicator for the beginning of the start of the vegetation active period.

Unit:

Day of year


Metric 2
Name:

Phenology Deciduous

Description:

The data set consists of yearly maps of the start of the vegetation active period (VAP) in deciduous vegetation (Day of Year), which is defined as the day when deciduous trees unfold new leaves in spring. It is also often referred to as the green-up or greening day. The data set was derived from time series of the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) calculated from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) satellite observation.

Unit:

Day of year


Spatial domain

Spatial extent:

National

Spatial description:

Finland

Spatial resolution:

0.05 degree

Temporal domain

Temporal resolution:

Yearly

Temporal extent:

From 2001 to 2019

Biological entity

Entity type:

Vegetation

Environmental domain

Realm:

Terrestrial

Description:

Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Terra Level 1B (1 km, 500 m) were manually selected from the Level-1 and Atmosphere Archive and Distribution System (LAADS DAAC). From 2009 onwards data were obtained from the satellite receiving station of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) in Sodankylä, Finland and gap-filled with data from LAADS DAAC. MODIS Level 1B data were calibrated to top-of-atmosphere reflectances and projected to a geographic latitude/longitude grid (datum WGS-84) using the software envimon by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). Fractional Snow Cover (FSC) and the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) were calculated from MODIS top-of-atmosphere reflectances. Cloud covered observations were removed using an automatic cloud masking algorithm by the Finnish Environment Institute. For the extraction of the start of the VAP in coniferous forest, FSC was averaged at a spatial resolution of 0.05 x 0.05 degrees for the MODIS pixels with dominant coverage of coniferous forest. A sigmoid function was fitted to the averaged FSC-time series and the start of the VAP was determined based on a threshold value. For the extraction of the VAP in deciduous vegetation, daily NDWI time series were averaged for MODIS pixels with vegetation cover into the same spatial grid (0.05 x 0.05 degrees). The day of the VAP was determined from NDWI time series based on a threshold value. The yearly maps of the VAP were smoothed with a median filter to remove spurious outliers and fill spatial gaps. Open water areas were masked.

Sources used to generate the data

Source 1
Name and version:

MODIS time-series-derived indicators for the beginning of the growing season in boreal coniferous forest — A comparison with CO2 flux measurements and phenological observations in Finland

Type:

Description of protocol


Access:

Restricted


Link:

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2013.09.022


Reference:


Source 2
Name and version:

Evaluating biosphere model estimates of the start of the vegetation active season in boreal forests by satellite observations

Type:

Dataset


Access:

Open


Link:

https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8070580


Reference:


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